The blacksmith’s forge is probably the most familiar technology that blows jets of primary air up into charcoal or coal, resulting in the high temperatures needed to shape or melt metals. A forge needs air at high pressure (10” water column) to do its work. A fan (usually a radial pressure blower) capable of moving air against significant resistance is required. You don’t need a big volume of air. What is needed is pressure to keep the air moving and to create molecular mixing of the woodgas and flame.
The SSM Jet-Flame
The Jet-Flame uses the same technology as a forge. It required a year of R&D to create a low cost, 1.5 Watt fan that delivers sufficient pressure into a Rocket stove fire. Thirty 2mm jets of air at 0.4 to 2 inches of water pressure blow up into the charcoal under the burning sticks of wood. When the pressure rises and the vertical jets of air penetrate further into the charcoal and fire, the following effects are seen:
• Temperatures rise in the combustion chamber, resulting in higher thermal efficiency as hotter gases flow past the pot. The higher temperatures also result in lower PM2.5 and CO. However, proper metering of the fuel, mixing caused by turbulence, and sufficient residence time are as important for decreased emissions of PM2.5 and CO. With higher temperatures, the related measures of firepower and CO2 also rise, while the fuel/air ratio decreases – as the fire increases, more oxygen is consumed. Increasing the pressure also increases firepower even when a constant fuel load (usually two 4cm by 4.5cm sticks) is being burned. Larger sticks have a lower surface area to volume ratio and make less smoke. When the outer surface of the sticks are covered with charcoal, emissions decrease as well.
• In a Rocket stove that has a large fuel opening, natural draft pulls room air into the combustion chamber. With forced draft adding more air, the average Lambda in a Rocket stove tends to stay above two times stoichiometric. The jets of air blowing into the charcoal result in higher temperatures as pressure increases resulting in temperatures over 1,000°C even at 2 to 5 Lambda. Secondary air jets blowing into the fire, on the other hand, have a cooling effect. In a Rocket stove with a Jet-Flame, the varying fuel/air ratios are not related to the emission rates of PM2.5 and CO.
• Higher temperatures caused by greater pressure also have detrimental effects. The percentage of black carbon is higher when temperatures/firepower/CO2 become elevated – hot yellow flames cause the formation of black carbon. The lifespan of affordable refractory metals is greatly decreased by very high temperatures such as 1,000°C. A durable refractory ceramic material is better suited to higher operating temperatures. Replacing metal combustion chambers with low mass, refractory ceramic was recommended by the 2011 DOE biomass stove conference. https://www1.eere.energy.gov/bioenergy/pdfs/cookstove_meeting_summary.pdf
• Lowering the firepower by adjusting the pressure in the air jets assists the metering of fuel to achieve a 3 to 1 turn down ratio. When the pressure is too high, the fire can be blown out when the charcoal has disappeared. A layer of charcoal under the fire (or charcoal coating the sticks) helps to maintain the fire and lower emissions as charcoal emits much less PM2.5 compared to wood. The levels of CO tend to rise when the flame above the sticks decreases. The amount of flame above the sticks seems to be related to lower emissions of CO and PM2.5. The amount of flame above the burning sticks, the metering of the fuel, and the mixing of the wood gas are not as easily quantified as temperature and residence time but are as important for more complete combustion.